Favorite JFK Quotes

  1. If more politicians knew poetry, and more poets knew politics, I am convinced the world would be a better place to in which to live. Address Harvard 1956
  2. If we are strong, our strength will speak for itself. If we are weak, words will be of no help. JFK quote
  3. The life of the arts, far from being an interruption, a distraction in the life of the nation, is very close to the center of a nation’s purpose – and it is the test of the quality of a nation’s civilization. Inscribed at the JFK Center for the Performing Arts, Washington, D.C. – Public papers of the President 1962
  4. Only those who dare to fail greatly can ever achieve greatly. JFK quote
  5. The life of the artist is, in relation to his work, stern and lonely. He has labored hard, often amid depravation, to perfect his skill. He has turned aside form quick success in order to strip his vision of everything secondary or cheapening. His working life is marked by intense application and intense discipline. Public Papers 1962
  6. Do not pray for easy lives. Pray to be stronger men. JFK quote
  7. We can say with some assurance that, although children may be the victims of fate, they will not be the victims of our neglect. Remarks upon signing the Maternal and Child Health and Mental Retardation Planning Bill – October 1963
  8. For without belittling the courage with which men have died, we should not forget those acts of courage with which men…have lived… A man does what he must – in spite of personal consequences, in spite of obstacles and dangers and pressures – and that is the basis of all human morality. Profiles in Courage 1955
  9. Our deep spiritual confidence that this nation will survive the perils of today – which may well be with us for decades to come – compels us to invest in our nation’s future, to consider and meet our obligations to our children and the numberless generations that will follow. Special Message to Congress on Conservation 1962
  10. We have not fully recognized the difficulty facing a politician conscientiously desiring, in [Daniel] Webster’s words, ‘to push [his] skiff from the shore alone’ into a hostile and turbulent sea. Profiles in Courage 1955
  11. Several nights ago, I dreamed that the good Lord touched me on the shoulder and said, ‘Don’t worry, you’ll be the Democratic presidential nominee in 1960. What’s more, you’ll be elected. I told [U.S. Senator] Stu Symington about my dream. ‘Funny thing,’ he said, ‘I had the same dream myself.’ We both told about our dreams to Lyndon Johnson, and Johnson said, ‘That’s funny. For the life of me, I can’t remember tapping either one of you two boys for the job. JFK quote
  12. The stories of past courage…can teach, they can offer hope, they can provide inspiration. But they cannot supply courage itself. For this each man must look into his own soul. Profile in Courage 1956
  13. Can a nation organised and governed such as our endure? That is the real question. Have we the nerve and the will? Can we carry through in an age where we will witness not only new breakthroughs in weapons of destruction – but also a race for mastery of the sky and the rain, and the ocean and the tides, the far side of space and the inside of men’s minds.? JFK quote
  14. What really counts is not the immediate act of courage or of valor, but those who bear the struggle day in and day out – not the sunshine patriots but those who are willing to stand for a long period of time.  Remarks to the American Legion 1962
  15. We are not here to curse the darkness, but to light a candle that can guide us through that darkness to a safe and sane future. For the world is changing. The old era is ending. The old ways will not do. JFK quote
  16. As we face the coming challenge, we, too, shall wait upon the Lord, and ask that he renew our strength. Then shall we be equal to the test. Then, we shall not be weary. And then we shall prevail. Democratic nomination acceptance speech, Los Angeles, July 1960
  17. In August 1960, referring to the famous “kitchen debate” in which Mr. Nixon managed to argue with Soviet Nikita Krushchev in a Moscow kitchen, Kennedy quipped,”Mr. Nixon may be very experienced in kitchen debates. So are a great many other married men I know.” JFK qoute
  18. Victory has 100 fathers and defeat is an orphan. Press Conference April 1961 – Bay of Pigs
  19. Mr. Nixon in the last seven days has called mean economic ignoramus, a Pied Piper, and all the rest. I’ve just confined myself to calling him a Republican, but he says that is getting too low. JFK quote
  20. Dante once said that the hottest places in hell are reserved for those who in a period of moral crises maintain their neutrality. Bonn Germany June 1963 – Establishing a West German Peace Corps
  21. Speaking at the Beverly Hilton Hotel in Los Angeles, just five days before the 1960 election, Kennedy defended his criticisms of Vice President Nixon and the Eisenhower administration:  “Abraham Lincoln once said,’One who has the heart to help has the right to criticize.’ We are going to help.” JFK quote
  22. The Federal Budget can and should be made an instrument of prosperity and stability, not a deterrent to recovery. Special Message to Congress for Economic Recovery and Growth Feb 1961
  23. I think we have to revitalize our society. I think we have to demonstrate to the people of the world that we’re determined in this free country of ours to be first – not first if – not first but – not first when – but first. And when we are strong and when we are first, then freedom gains; then the prospects for peace increases; then the prospects for our society gain. JFK quote
  24. A rising tide lifts all boats. Remarks Pueblo, Colorado August 1962
  25. In a campaign very much like this one, one hundred years ago, when the issues were the same [Abraham Lincoln] wrote to a friend, ‘I know there is a God, and I know He hates injustice. I see the storm coming and I know His hand is in it. But if He has a place and a part for me, I belive that I am ready.’ Now, one hundred years later, when the issue is still freedom or slavery, we know there is a God and we know He hates injustice. We see the storm coming, and we know His hand is in it. But if He has a place and a part for me, I believe that we are ready. JFK quote
  26. It is increasingly clear that no matter which party is in power, so long as our national security needs keep rising, an economy hampered by restrictive tax rates will never produce enough jobs or enough profits. Remarks to the Economic Club of New York, December 1962
  27. At a Gridiron Dinner in Washington, Kennedy joked, “I have just received the following telegram from my generous Daddy. It says, ‘Dear Jack: Don’t buy a single vote more than necessary. I’ll be dammed if I’m going to pay for a landslide.’ “ JFK Quote
  28. There is always inequity in Life. Some men are killed in a war and some men are wounded, and some men never are stationed in the Antarctic and some men are stationed in San Francisco. It is very hard in the military or personal life to assure complete equality. Life is unfair. Some people are sick and others well. Press Conference March 1962
  29. A fellow Democrat introduced Kennedy at a campaign rally in Muskegon, Michigan, with tremendous enthusiasm, Kennedy began his speech:
    I want to express my appreciation to the governor. Every time he introduces me as the potentially greatest president in the history of the Uited States, I always think perhaps he is overstating it one or two degrees. George Washingon wasn’t a bad president and I do want to say a word for Thomas Jefferson. But, otherwise, I will accept the compliment.” JFK quote
  30. We must think and act not only for the moment but for our time. I am reminded of the story of the great French Marshall Lyautey, who once asked his gardener to plant a tree. The gardener objected that the tree was slow growing and would not reach maturity for a hundred years. The Marshall replied, ‘In that case, there is no time to lose, plant it this afternoon.” Address at the University of California, Berkley, March 1962
  31. In Palmer, Alaska, Kennedy pointed out:” I am the first candidate for the presidency to actively campaign in the state of Alaska. There are three electoral votes in Alaska. I left Washington, D.C., this morning at eight o’clock. I have come, I figure, about three thousand miles per electoral vote. And if I travel eight hundred thousand miles in the next two months, we might win this election.” JFK quote
  32. I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered together at the White House, with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone. Remarks at dinner honoring Nobel Prize Winners of the Western Hemisphere – White House – April 1962
  33. Ladies and gentlemen, I was warned to be out of here in plenty of time to permit those who are going to the Green Bay Packers game to leave. I don’t mind running against Mr. Nixon, but I have the good sense not to run against the Green Bay Packers. JFK quote
  34. Today every inhabitant of this planet must contemplate that day when this planet may no longer be habitable. Every man, woman and child lives under the sword of Damocles, hanging by the slenderest of threads, capable of being cut at any moment by accident or miscalculation or madness. The weapons of war must be abolished before they abolish us. Address to the United Nations General Assembly, September 1961
  35. Thanking a Los Angeles crowd for an enthusiastic reception: “I appreciate your welcome. As the cow said to the Maine farmer, ‘Thank you for a warm hand on a cold morning. “
  36. My fellow Americans, let us take that first step. Let us…step back from the shadows of war and seek out the way of peace. And if that journey is a thousand miles, or even more, let history record that we, in this land, at this time, took the first step. Radio and Television Address to the American people on the Limited Test Ban Treaty, July 1963
  37. Many claimed that Kennedy lacked the experience that many deemed necessary for the president. Kennedy often referred to the achievements of his young predecessors: “To exclude from positions of trust and command all those below the age of forty-four would have kept Jefferson from writing the Declaration of Independence, Washington from commanding the Continental Army, Madison from fathering the Constitution, Hamilton from serving as Secretary of the Treasury, Clay from being elected Speaker of the House and Christopher Columbus from discovering America.” JFK Quote
  38. We can help make the world safe for diversity. For in the final analysis, our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this small planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children’s future. And we are all mortal. Commencement Address at American University, June 1963
  39. Kennedy’s campaign speeches were often sprinkled with quotes from famous poets. He sometimes closed a campaign speech with a few lines from a poem by Robert Frost. While speaking before students at New York University one evening, Kennedy concluded with lines from Frost’s Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening “But I have promises to keep/And miles to go before I sleep/And miles to go before I sleep.” He then paused and said, “And now I go to Brooklyn.” JFK Quote
  40. If an American, because the color of his skin is dark, cannot eat lunch in a restaurant open to the public, if he cannot send his children to the best public schools available, if he cannot vote for those public officials that represent him, if, in short, he cannot enjoy the full and free life which all of us want, then who among us would be content to have the color of his skin changed and stand in his place? Who among us would then be content with the counsels of patience and delay? Address to the Nation, Civil Rights, June 1963
  41. On the presidential coat of arms, the American eagle holds in his right talon the olive branch, while in his left he holds a bundle of arrows. We intend to give equal attention to both. JFK Quote
  42. What we are seeking, after all, is really very simple. It’s merely recognition that this is one nation and we are all one great people. Our origins may be different but our destiny is the same, our aspirations are identical. There can be no artificial distinctions, no arbitrary barriers, in securing these rights. NAACP Rally, Los Angeles, July 1960
  43. Roosevelt fulfilled the role of moral leadership. So did Wilson and Lincoln, Truman and Jackson and Teddy Roosevelt. They led the people as well as the government – they fought for great ideals as well as bills. JFK Quote
  44. We have become more and more not a nation of athletes but a nation of spectators. Remarks at the national Football Foundation and Hall of Fame Banquet, December 1961
  45. Kennedy was reluctant to give assessments of himself or his presidency, answering such queries simply: “I have a nice home, the office is close by, and the pay is good.” JFK Quote
  46. We are tied to the ocean. And when we go back to the sea – whether it is to sail or to watch it – we are going back from whence we came. Remarks in Newport, America’s Cup, September 1962
  47. If anyone is crazy enough to want to kill a president of the United States, he can do it. All he must be prepared to do is give his life for the president’s. JFK Quote
  48. We go into space because whatever mankind must undertake, free men must fully share…I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth. Special Message to the Congress May 1961
  49. In his second State of the Union address to Congress on January 11, 1962, Kennedy said of his administration: “The policy of this administration is to give to the individual the opportunity to realize his own highest possibilities.” JFK Quote
  50. We set sail on this new sea because there is new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. For space science like nuclear science and technology, has no conscience of its own. Whether it will become a force for good or ill, depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of preeminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. Address at Rice University, Houston, Texas, September 1962
  51. In his third and final State of the Union address in 1963, Kennedy rejoiced in the nation’s progress but urged Americans to prepare for the future: “In short, both at home and abroad, there may now be a temptation to relax. For the road has been long, the burden heavy, and the pace consistently urgent But we cannot be satisfied to rest here. This is the side of the hill, not the top. The mere absence of recession is not growth. We have made a beginning – but we have only begun. Now the time has come to make the most of our gains – to translate the renewal of our national strength onto achievement of our natioal purpose.” JFK quote
  52. This nation has tossed its cap over the wall of space, and we have no choice but to follow it. Remarks at Aerospace Medical Health Center, San Antonio, Texas, November 1963
  53. The great enemy of the truth is very often not the lie — deliberate, contrived and dishonest — but the myth — persistent, persuasive and unrealistic. JFK Quote
  54. We are not afraid to entrust the American people with unpleasant facts, foreign ideas, alien philosophies, and competitive values. For a nation that is afraid to let its people judge the truth and falsehood in an open market is a nation that is afraid of its people. Floyd College, Rome, Georgia, on the 20th anniversary of Voice of America, February 1962
  55. Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future. JFK Quote
  56. Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names. JFK Quote
  57. If we cannot end now our differences, at least we can help make the world safe for diversity. JFK Quote
  58. Let us think of education as the means of developing our greatest abilities, because in each of us there is a private hope and dream which, fulfilled, can be translated into benefit for everyone and greater strength for our nation. JFK Quote
  59. Liberty without learning is always in peril; learning without liberty is always in vain. JFK Quote
  60. The American, by nature, is optimistic. He is experimental, an inventor and a builder who builds best when called upon to build greatly. JFK Quote
  61. The ancient Greek definition of happiness was the full use of your powers along lines of excellence. JFK Quote
  62. Our problems are man-made, therefore they can be solved by man. No problem of human destiny is beyond human beings. American University, June 1963
  63. So, let us not be blind to our differences – but let us also direct attention to our common interests and to the means by which those differences can be resolved. JFK Quote
  64. The time to repair the roof is when the sun is shining. JFK Quote
  65. There are risks and costs to a program of action. But they are far less than the long-range risks and costs of comfortable inaction. JFK Quote
  66. Every American ought to have the right to be treated as he would wish to be treated, as he would wish to have his children treated. Address to the Nation – Civil Rights – June 1963
  67. We must use time as a tool, not as a crutch. JFK Quote
  68. We stand for freedom. That is our conviction for ourselves; that is our only commitment to others. JFK Quote
  69. I look forward to an America which commands respect throughout the world, not only for its strength, but for its civilization as well. And I look forward to a world which will be safe not only for democracy and diversity but also for personal distinction. Importance of the Arts, Amherst College, October 1963
  70. When we got into office, the thing that suprised me the most was that things were as bad as we’d been saying they were. JFK Quote
  71. The men who create power make an indispensible contribution to the Nation’s greatness, but the men who question power make a contribution just as indispensible, especially when that questioning is disinterested, for they determine whether we use power or power uses us. Importance of the Arts, Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts,  October 1963
  72. Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable. JFK Quote
  73. We have all made mistakes. But Dante tells us that divine justice weighs the sins of the cold-blooded and the sins of the warm-hearted on different scales. Better the occasional faults of a party living in the spirit of charity than the consistent omissions of a party frozen in the ice of its own indifference. JFK Quote
  74. The supreme reality of our time is our indivisibility as children of God and the common vulnerability of this planet. Address to the Irish Parliament, Dublin, Ireland, June 1963
  75. The world is very different now…and yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe — the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state but from the hand of God. Inaugural Address, Washington, D.C, January 1961
  76. The ignorance of one voter in a democracy impairs the security of all. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, May 1963
  77. Let us never negotiate out of fear but let us never fear to negotiate. Inaugural Address, Washington, D.C., January 1961
  78. The Chinese use two characters to write the word ‘crisis.’ One character stands for danger; the other for opportunity. In a crisis, be aware of the danger – but recognize the opportunity. JFK Quote
  79. A nation reveals itself not only by the men it produce but also by the men it honors, the men it remembers. Importance of the Arts, Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 1963
  80. Acting on our own, by ourselves, we cannot establish justice throughout the world, but joined with other free nations, we can….assist the developing nations to throw off the yoke of poverty. Address at Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 4th 1962
  81. When power leads man towards arrogance, poetry reminds him of his limitations. When power narrows the area of man’s concern, poetry reminds him of the richness and diversity of his existence. When power corrupts, poetry cleanses. Importance of the Arts, Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts, October 1963
  82. I hope that no American….will waste his franchise and throw away his vote by voting either for me or against me solely on account of my religious affiliation. It is not relevant. JFK Quote
  83. We chose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our skills and talents, because that challenge is one we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone and one we intend to win, and the others, too. Address at Rice University, Space Needs, Houston, Texas, September 1962
  84. Mr. Speaker, this Congress will adjourn Saturday. It will have considered action on many matters of varying importance, but it will not have taken any action to meet the most pressing problem with which this country is now confronted… the severe, ever-growing shortage of housing which faces our veterans and others of moderate means. The Bureau of Census, in a recent survey, stated that there were 160,000 veterans of World War II in the Boston area in July of 1946. Forty-two percent of the veterans who were married among this group were living in rented rooms or doubled up. Their need is drastic. I am going to have to go back to my district Saturday, a district that sent probably more boys per family into this last war than any in the country, and when they ask me if I was able to get them homes, I will have to answer, ‘not a one — not a single one.’ US House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. July 1947
  85. Mr. President, the time has come for the American people to be told the blunt truth about Indochina…… to pour money, material and men into the jungles of Indochina without at least a remote prospect of victory would be futile and self-destructive. Of course, all discussion of ‘united action’ assumes the inevitability of such victory; but such assumptions are not unlike similar predictions of confidence which have lulled the American people for many years and which, if contained, would present an improper basis for determining the extent of American participation. Despite this series of optimistic reports about eventual victory, every member of the Senate knows that such a victory today appears to be desperately remote, to say the least, despite tremendous amounts of economic and material aid from the United States, and despite a deplorable loss of French Union manpower…I am, frankly, of the belief that no amount of American military assistance in Indochina can conquer an enemy which is everywhere and at the same time nowhere, ‘an enemy of the people’ which has the sympathy and covert support of the people. United States Senate, Washington, D,C, April 1954
  86. Mr. President, the most powerful single force in the world today is neither communism nor capitalism, neither the H-bomb nor the guided missile –it is man’s eternal desire to be free and independent. The great enemy of that tremendous force of freedom is called, for want of a more precise term, imperialism — and today that means Soviet imperialism and, whether we like it or not, and though they are not to be equated, Western imperialism. Thus the single most important test of American foreign policy today is how we meet the challenge of imperialism, what we do to further man’s desire to be free. On this test more than any other, this nation shall be critically judged by the uncommitted millions in Asia and Africa, and anxiously watched by the still-hopeful lovers of freedom behind the Iron Curtain. If we fail to meet the challenge of either Soviet or Western Imperialism, then no amount of foreign aid, no aggrandizement of armaments, no new pacts or doctrines or high-level conferences can prevent further setbacks of our course and to our security. United States Senate, Washington, D.C. July 1957
  87. I think the question before the American people is: Are we doing as much as we can do? Are we as strong as we should be? Are we as strong as we must be if we are going to maintain our independence and if we are going to maintain and hold out the hand of friendship to those who look to us for assistance, to those who look to us for survival? I should make it very clear that I do not think we’re doing enough, that I am not satisfied as an American with the progress that we are making. This is a great country, but I think it could be a greater country, and this is a powerful country but I think it could be a more powerful country. I’m not satisfied to have 50 percent of our steel mill capacity unused. I’m not satisfied when the United States has last year the lowest rate of economic growth of any major industrialized society in the world. I’m not satisfied when we have over $9 billion worth of food, some of it rotting even though there is a hungry world and even though four million Americans wait every month for a food package from the government which averages 5 cents a day per individual. I’m not satisfied when the Soviet Union is turning out twice as many scientists and engineers as we are. I’m not satisfied when many of our teachers are inadequately paid or when our children go to school on part-time shifts. I think we should have an educational system second to none. Opening statement – First televised presidential debate, September 1960
  88. I believe in an America that is officially neither Catholic, Protestant, nor Jewish – where no public official either requests or accepts public instruction on public policy from the Pope, the National Coucil of Churches or any other ecclesiastical source – where no religious body seeks to impose its will either directly or indirectly upon the general populace or the public acts of its officials – and where religious liberty is so indivisible that an act agains one church is treated as an act agains all. For while this year it may be a Catholic against whom the finger of suspicion is pointed, in other years it has been, and may someday be again, a Jew,or a Quaker, or a Unitarian, or a Baptist. It was Virginia’s harassment of Baptist preachers, for example, that led to Jefferson’s Statute of Religious Freedom. Today, I may be the victim, but tomorrow it may be you, until the whole fabric of our harmonious society is ripped apart in a time of great national peril. Greater Houston Ministerial Association, Houston, Texas September 1960
  89. Today, every inhabitant of this planet must contemplate the day when this planet may no longer be habitable. Every man, woman and child lives under a nuclear sword of Damocles, hanging by the slenderest of threads, capable of being cut at any moment by accident or miscalculation or madness. The weapons of war must be abolished before they abolish us. United Nations General Assembly, New York, N.Y. September 1961
  90. Chairman Khrushchev has compared the United States to a worn-out runner living on its past perfromance and stated that the Soviet Union would out-produce the United States by 1970. Without wishing to trade hyperbole with the chairman, I do suggest that he reminds me of the tiger hnter who picked a place on the wall to hang the tiger’s skin long before he ahs caught the tiger. This tiger has other ideas. Presidential news conference, Washington, D.C. June 1961
  91. I call on Chairman Khruschchev to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stablize relations betwqeen our two nations. I call upon him further to abandon this course of world domination and to join in an historic effort to end the perilious arms race and to transfoorm the history of man. He has an opportunity now to move the world back from the abyss of destruction by returning to his government’s own words that it had no need to sattion missiles outside its own territory, and without drawing these weapons form Cuba, by refraining from any action which will widen or deepen the present crisis, and then by participation in a search for peaceful solutions. My fellow citizens: let no one doubt that this is a difficult and dangerous effort on which we have set out. No one can forsee precisely what course it will take or what costs or casualities will be incurred. Many months of sacrifice and self-discipline lie ahead – months in which both our patience and our will will be teasted – months in which many threats and denunciations will keep us aware of our dangers. But the greatest danger of all would be to do nothing…Our goal is not the victory of might but the vindication of right – not peace at the expense of freedom but both peace and freedom, here in this hemisphere, and, we hope, around the world. God willing, that goal will be achieved. Televised address on Cuban missile crisis, Washington, D.C. October 1962
  92. Americans are free to disagree with the law but not to disobey it. For a government of laws and not of men, no man, however pominent and powerful, no mob, however, unruly or boisterous, is entitled to defy a court of law. If this country should ever reach the point where any man or group of men, by force or threat of force, could long defy the commands of our courts and our Constitution, then no law would stand free from doubt, no judge would be sure of his writ and no citizen would be safe form his neighbors.Remarks to the nation on the James Meredith case, September 1962
  93. Yesterday, a shaft of light cut into the darkness. Negotiations were concluded in Moscow on a treaty to ban all nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water…Now, for the first time in many years, the path to peace may be open. No one can be certain what the future wil bring. No one can say whether the time can come for an easing of the struggle. But history and our own conscience will judge us harsher if we do not now make every effort to test our hopes by action, and this is the place to begin. According to the ancient Chinese proverb, ‘A journey of a thousand mile must begin with a single step.” My fellow Americans, let us take that first step. Let us, if we can, step back from the shadows of war and seek out the way of peace. And if that journey is 1,000 miles, or even more, let history record that we , in this land, at this time, took the first step. Address to the nation on the Test Ban treaty, July 1963
  94. We in this counrty, in this generation, are, by destiny rather than choice, the watchmen on the walls of world freedom. We ask, therefore, that we may be worthy of our power and responsibility, that we may exercise our strength with wisdom and restraint, and that we may achieve in our time and for all time the ancient vision of ‘peace on earth, goodwill toward men.’ That must always be our goal, and the righteousness of our cause must always underlie our strength. For as it was written long ago, ‘except the Lord keep the city, the watchman waketh but in vain.’ Undelivered luncheon speech, Dallas, Texas November 22, 1963